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Femtosecond x-ray-induced explosion of C60 at extreme intensity
Brendan Murphy, Timur Osipov, Zoltan Jurek, Li Fang, Sang-Kil Son, Melanie Mucke, John H.D. Eland, Vitali Zhaunerchyk, Raimund Feifel, Lorenzo Avaldi, Paola Bolognesi, Christoph Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, Jakob Grilj, Markus Guehr, Leszek J. Frasinski, James Glownia, Dang Trinh Ha, Kay Hoffmann, Edwin Kukk, Brian K. McFarland, Catalin Miron, Emily Sistrunk, Richard J. Squibb, Kiyoshi Ueda, Robin Santra, and Nora BerrahNat. Commun. 5, 4281 (2014)
Understanding molecular femtosecond dynamics under intense X-ray exposure is critical to progress in biomolecular imaging and matter under extreme conditions. Imaging viruses and proteins at an atomic spatial scale and on the time scale of atomic motion requires rigorous, quantitative understanding of dynamical effects of intense X-ray exposure. Here we present an experimental and theoretical study of C60 molecules interacting with intense X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser, revealing the influence of processes not previously reported. Our work illustrates the successful use of classical mechanics to describe all moving particles in C60, an approach that scales well to larger systems, for example, biomolecules. Comparisons of the model with experimental data on C60 ion fragmentation show excellent agreement under a variety of laser conditions. The results indicate that this modelling is applicable for X-ray interactions with any extended system, even at higher X-ray dose rates expected with future light sources.
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