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Nonlinear atomic response to intense ultrashort x rays
Gilles Doumy, C. Roedig, Sang-Kil Son, C. I. Blaga, A. D. DiChiara, Robin Santra, N. Berrah, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, P. H. Bucksbaum, J. P. Cryan, L. Fang, S. Ghimire, J. M. Glownia, M. Hoener, E. P. Kanter, B. Krässig, M. Kuebel, M. Messerschmidt, G. G. Paulus, D. A. Reis, N. Rohringer, L. Young, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauroPhys. Rev. Lett. 106, 083002 (2011)
The nonlinear absorption mechanisms of neon atoms to intense, femtosecond kilovolt x rays are investigated. The production of Ne9+ is observed at x-ray frequencies below the Ne8+, 1s2 absorption edge and demonstrates a clear quadratic dependence on fluence. Theoretical analysis shows that the production is a combination of the two-photon ionization of Ne8+ ground state and a high-order sequential process involving single-photon production and ionization of transient excited states on a time scale faster than the Auger decay. We find that the nonlinear direct two-photon ionization cross section is orders of magnitude higher than expected from previous calculations.
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